All articles

A-line dress
Academic dress
Acrylic and modacrylic fibers
Actors and actresses, impact on fashion
Adinkra cloth
Aesthetic dress
Africa, North: history of dress
Africa, sub-Saharan: history of dress
African American dress
Afro hairstyle
Afrocentric fashion
Ancient world: history of dress
André Courrèges
Animal prints
Ann Demeulemeester
Anne Fogarty
Ao dai – Vietnam’s national dress
Art and fashion
Art nouveau and art deco
Asia, Southeastern islands and the pacific: history of dress
Asia, Southeastern mainland: history of dress
Australian dress
Azzedine Alaïa
Ball dress
Ballet costume
Barbie doll
Bark cloth
Beards and mustaches
Belgian fashion
Belts and buckles
Best-dressed lists
Bicycle clothing
Bill Blass
Bloomer costume
Body piercing
Bodybuilding and sculpting
Bohemian dress
Bonnie Cashin
Boxer shorts
Brands and labels
Brooches and pins
Brooks Brothers
Callot sisters
Cambric, batiste, and lawn
Camel hair
Camouflage cloth
Canes and walking sticks
Caricature and fashion
Carnival dress
Cashmere and pashmina
Casual business dress
Cecil Beaton
Central America and Mexico: history of dress
Central Asia: history of dress
Ceremonial and festival costumes
Charles Wilson Brega James
Charles-Pierre Baudelaire
Chemise dress
Children’s clothing
China: history of dress
Christian Dior
Closures, hook-and-loop
Clothing, costume, and dress
Cocktail dress
Colonialism and imperialism
Color in dress
Comme des garçons
Communist dress
Cosmetics, non-western
Cosmetics, western
Costume designer
Costume jewelry
Court dress
Cowboy clothing
Cristobal Balenciaga
Crowns and tiaras
Cuff links and studs
Cunnington, C. Willett and Phillis
Dance and fashion
Dance costume
Debutante dress
Department store
Diana, princess of wales
Dolce & Gabbana
Domestic production
Dress codes
Dress for success
Dress reform
Dress shirt
Dry cleaning
Duffle coat
Dyeing, resist
Dyes, chemical and synthetic
Dyes, natural
East Asia: history of dress
Ecclesiastical dress
Economics and clothing
Edith Head
Elizabeth Hawes
Empire style
Equestrian costume
Ethnic dress
Ethnic style in fashion
Europe and America: history of dress (400-1900 c.e.)
Evening dress
Extreme fashions
Fancy dress
Fascist and nazi dress
Fashion advertising
Fashion and homosexuality
Fashion and identity
Fashion designer
Fashion dolls
Fashion editors
Fashion education
Fashion icons
Fashion illustrators
Fashion industry
Fashion journalism
Fashion magazines
Fashion marketing and merchandising
Fashion models
Fashion museums and collections
Fashion online
Fashion photography
Fashion plates
Fashion shows
Fashion television
Fashion, attacks on
Fashion, health, and disease
Fetish fashion
Film and fashion
First ladies’ gowns
Folk dress, Eastern Europe
Folk dress, Western Europe
Folklore look
Fontana sisters
Formal wear, men’s
Future of fashion
Futurist fashion, italian
G-string and thong
Gabrielle Chanel (Coco)
Garments, international trade in
Gender, dress, and fashion
Geoffrey Beene
George Bryan Brummell (Beau)
Georges Barbier
Giorgio Armani
Godey’s Lady’s Book
Golf clothing
Guy Bourdin
Hair accessories
Halloween costume
Hand spinning
Handbags and purses
Handwoven textiles
Hardy Amies
Hartnell, Norman
Hats, men’s
Hats, women’s
Haute couture
Hawaiian shirt
Headdress – Hairnets, Headband Bandeau, Kerchief and Head Wrap, Spanish Mantilla, Royal Headdresses, Wedding Headdresses
Helmet – Ancient Helmets, Middle Ages, Modern Military, Occupation Helmets, Sports Helmets, Space Helmets
Hemlines, history of. 1915 — Hemlines Rise. 1947 — The New Look. 1970 — The Midi
Hemp clothing, hemp fiber, hemp products, hemp seeds, hemp rope, hemp fabric, hemp for victory, industrial hemp, hemp yarn, hemp canvas
Hermès Scarves, Hermès Handbags, Hermès Tie, Hermès Fashions, hermes bags, hermes scarf
Heroin chic
High heels
High-tech fashion
Hilfiger Tommy
Hip-hop fashion
Hippie style
Historical studies of fashion
Historicism and historical revival
Hollywood style
Honoré de Balzac
Hoop skirt
Horst P. Horst. Horst Paul Albert Bohrmann
Hosiery, men’s
Hosiery, women’s
Hospital gowns
Hoyningen-Huene, George
Hubert de Givenchy
Hugo Boss
Hussein Chalayan
Implants: facial, breast, buttock augmentation. Penile implant. Soft tissue or injection. Hair grafts. Teflon and surgical steel implants. Plastic surgery. Health risks
India: clothing and adornment. Preshaped garments. Jewelry. Scenting the body. Treatment of head and body hair. Kajal. Age and gender differentiation. History and the indian fashion industry
Indigo. What is indigo. Woad and Indigo. Manufacture. Distinction. Indigo Vats. Patterned Indigo. Synthetic Indigo
Inuit and arctic dress. Materials. Technology.
Inuit and arctic footwear. Cross-Cultural and Historical Overview. Materials. Technology.
Iran, history of pre-islamic dress
Islamic dress, contemporary
Italian fashion
Jacques Doucet
Jacques Fath
James Galanos
Jean Baudrillard
Jean-Paul Gaultier
Jeanne Paquin
John Carl Flügel
John Galliano
Louise Dahl-Wolfe
Madame Alix Grès
Madame Demorest
Manolo Blahnik
Mariano Fortuny
Nautical style. Sailing.
North America: history of native american clothing
Occult dress
Occupational uniforms
Olefin fibers
Orientalism (part 1)
Orientalism (part 2)
Oscar de la Renta
Pagne and wrapper
Paper dresses
Paris fashion
Paul Iribe
Performance finishes
Perry Ellis
Pierre Balmain
Pierre Cardin
Plastic and cosmetic surgery
Pointe shoes
Polo shirt
Professional associations
Protective clothing
Raymond (Ossie) Clark
Reenactors. Civil War.
Religion and dress
Richard Avedon
Roberto Capucci
Roland Barthes
Romeo Gigli
Rose Bertin
Rudi Gernreich
Russia: History of dress
Salvatore Ferragamo
Sonia Delaunay
South America: history of dress
South Asia: history of dress
Stephen Gerald Burrows
Sumptuary laws
Textile workers
Theatrical costume
Theories of fashion
Tom Ford
Walter Albini
Walter Benjamin

Charles Wilson Brega James

Charles Wilson Brega James was born 18 July 1906, in Camberley, Surrey, England. He was described by a friend, Sir Francis Rose, as temperamental, artistic, and blessed even in childhood with the ability to escape the mundane chores of life like a trapeze artist. His mother’s family was socially prominent in Chicago and his father was a British military officer, so young Charles experienced an international upbringing. He was educated at Harrow, a British public school, where he met the fellow fashion enthusiast and fashion photographer Cecil Beaton, whose images later defined James’s work. Read the rest of this entry »


A jacket is short coat, worn by both men and women. Apart from the suit, the jacket is one of the most important pieces in a man’s wardrobe. If cut and styled well, and if made in a fairly neutral color palette, this versatile piece of outerwear is suitable for both formal and leisure activities. A jacket should never be exaggerated in the shoulder or tight-fitting in the body, but cut proportionately to a man’s height and width in single- or double-breasted versions, with notched lapels or Nehru collar revers. There are countless styles and shapes of jackets through history, but each fits neatly into formal and semiformal styles. Read the rest of this entry »

Italian fashion

During the Renaissance, Italian city-states such as Florence were centers of fashion innovation. For centuries thereafter, however, Paris dominated the world of fashion. Of course, fashions were produced in Italy during that time, but they were usually derivative of French styles. Only since the 1950s has Italy achieved its own independent identity as a source of fashionable clothing for the rest of the world. Read the rest of this entry »

Islamic dress, contemporary

For both insiders and outsiders, dress is often at the center of debates concerning how Muslims should live in the rapidly changing, globally interconnected world of the early 2000s. Should women cover their heads? Is the hijab, the veil, a sign of oppression or a symbol of liberation? Who decides what Muslims should wear? Are Western styles of dress appropriate? Are they necessary for modernization? And what is acceptable for Muslims living in the West? Read the rest of this entry »

Paul Iribe

Paul Iribe (1883-1935) was born in An-goulême, France. He started his career in illustration and design as a newspaper typographer and magazine illustrator at numerous Parisian journals and daily papers, including Le temps and Le rire. In 1906 Iribe collaborated with a number of avant-garde artists to create the satirical journal Le témoin, and his illustrations in this journal attracted the attention of the fashion designer Paul Poiret. Poiret commissioned Iribe to illustrate his first major dress collection in a 1908 portfolio entitled Les robes de Paul Poiret racontées par Paul Iribe. This limited edition publication (250 copies) was innovative in its use of vivid fauvist colors and the simplified lines and flattened planes of Japanese prints. To create the plates, Iribe utilized a hand-coloring process called pochoir, in which bronze or zinc stencils are used to build up layers of color gradually. This publication, and others that followed, anticipated a revival of the fashion plate in a modernist style to reflect a newer, more streamlined fashionable silhouette. In 1911 the couturier Jeanne Paquin also hired Iribe, along with the illustrators Georges Lepape and Georges Barbier, to create a similar portfolio of her designs, entitled L’Eventail et la fourrure chez Paquin. Read the rest of this entry »

Iran, history of pre-islamic dress

Our knowledge of dress in pre-Islamic Iran comes from pictorial depictions mainly on rock reliefs, metalwork (including coinage), seal impressions, and, from about the second century C.E., wall paintings. Information is fragmentary and episodic, and relates to the ruling households, the military, divinities, and occasionally priests; depictions of women (even female goddesses) are rare. Read the rest of this entry »

Inuit and arctic footwear

Throughout the circumpolar region, from coastal Alaska, northern Canada, Greenland, and northern Europe to northern Siberia, people protected their feet with layers of inner and outer stockings, inner and outer boots, and inner and outer slippers. Customarily, these layers were made from skins, often with grass or skin insoles. Traditional northern people can identify where you are from and what you do by looking at your skin boots. The styles and materials used to make footwear changed seasonally, regionally, and from one usage to another. Many northern people see footwear as an extremely important part of their clothing because it is the one item that helps humans make the transition from earth to air, from the spirit world to the present world. For example, northerners who move into urban centers or move south often bring a pair of skin boots and carefully store them in the freezer compartment of the refrigerator, even though these items might be impractical when used in centrally heated buildings and on paved sidewalks. People continue to use traditional footwear for ceremonial and other special occasions. Read the rest of this entry »

Inuit and arctic dress

People throughout the circumpolar region, including Inuit and Inuvialuit in Canada, Yup’ik and Inupiat in coastal Alaska, Inuhuit in Greenland, Saami in northern Europe, and many groups from Siberia such as the Khanty, Nenets, Evenki, and Siberian Yupik, are recognized as the first people to make tailored garments. In ancient times, rather than wrapping skins around themselves, pieces were cut and laced together to provide protection from the weather and from spirits, which enabled these northern peoples to thrive. Each region developed its own styles, and people could tell where someone was from by looking at their clothing. Read the rest of this entry »


Indigo is a dyestuff known for its blue hue. The color comes from indigotin, a dye derived from the glucoside indican found in some fifty related plants, mostly in the leaves. Of these, Indigofera tinctoria, native to India, has the highest concentration of indican that makes deep, dark blues practicable. Less well-endowed varieties grow in Mexico and South America, Europe, Egypt, West Africa, Sumatra, Central Asia, China, and Japan where from ancient times they were used, it is thought, with varying degrees of influence from India. Read the rest of this entry »

India: clothing and adornment

Contemporary Indian dress is based upon a rich history of fashion development through 4,000 years (Ghurye 1966). The country contains one-sixth of the world’s population, divided into three language families—Sanskrit, Dravidian, and Proto-Munda—each contributing its own dress traditions. Dress varies by region, whether it is a difference in how a woman’s sari or man’s dhoti is wrapped; the cut of the design; the use of the headdress or hair dressing; or the use of temporary or permanent body markings. Caste, religious, regional, or ethnic identity of most rural dwellers and some urbanites is revealed in the design of their tattoos, jewelry, or headdress. Clothing style often communicates the same information. This entry focuses on popularly worn garments and major fashion trends of the recent era. Read the rest of this entry »


An implant is the introduction of a material or object under the skin that changes the shape of the body in that area. Implants create temporary, semipermanent, and permanent body modifications that transform the volume, space, and mass of a body area. Implants require an invasive procedure or surgery, often plastic or cosmetic surgery. Read the rest of this entry »


Ikat is a resist dye technique used to pattern textiles. The more common methods of resist dyeing involve covering parts of a fabric to shield the reserved areas from penetration of the dye, as in tie-dyeing, where threads are wound around the fabric, or in batik, where wax is applied to the surface of the cloth. The term “ikat” by contrast, is used for a process where prior to weaving, warp (lengthwise yarn) or weft (crosswise thread) or sometimes both are tied off with fiber knots that resist absorbing color and are then dyed. To facilitate the pattern tying, the threads are set up on a frame. They are then grouped into bunches of several threads to be tied at once; this results in the creation of knot units from which the overall pattern is built up. Resist ties are removed or new ones added for each color; their combinations create the design. After dyeing is completed, all resists are opened, and the patterned yarns are woven. Read the rest of this entry »

Hugo Boss

At the start of the twenty-first century Hugo Boss AG was among the biggest companies producing menswear in Germany and, in the last decade of the twentieth century, dominated the German menswear designer market through the distribution of various lines and licenses. In 1923 Hugo Boss founded the clothing company in Metzingen, near Stuttgart in the south of Germany. At first the company specialized in the production of work clothes, overalls, raincoats, and uniforms. From 1933 onward it made uniforms for German storm troopers, Wehrmacht, and Hitler Youth. Boss brought forced laborers from Poland and France to his factory to boost output in the following years. When Boss died in 1948, the factory returned to making uniforms for postal and police workers. In 1953 it produced its first men’s suits. Read the rest of this entry »

Hoyningen-Huene, George

George Hoyningen-Huene (1900-1968) is remembered as one of the finest fashion photographers of the 1920s and 1930s. He was born in St. Petersburg, Russia, to a Baltic nobleman, the chief equerry to Tsar Alexander III, and an American mother whose own father had been the United States Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary to the Russian court. Huene’s early upbringing was one of privilege, though the revolution brought those advantages to an abrupt end: the family’s properties were confiscated, and they were forced to flee for their lives. Read the rest of this entry »

Hospital gowns

HOSPITAL GOWNS. See Nonwoven Textiles.

Hosiery, women’s

HOSIERY, WOMEN’S. See Stockings, Women’s.

Hosiery, men’s

The term “hosiery” in contemporary usage is generally defined as stockings or socks, more specifically as tight-fitting knit goods that cover men’s feet and varying portions of the lower leg, or as knitted feet and leg coverings for women (such as pantyhose or tights). The related term “hose,” while used synonymously, is even more specifically historically defined as a man’s garment that fully covers the legs, like tights, and is tied to the doublet (a short, close-fitting jacket). The origin of the word “hose” is the Old English “hosa” or leg covering, or Middle English “hose” for stocking. A related German term, “hosen, ” is also often seen in historical use. In the history of Western dress, the term “hose” has been used to refer to a wide range of men’s leg coverings, with or without a footed portion, from early centuries C.E. through the early nineteenth century. These include the Roman lower leg wrappings called feminalia, the early northern European footed or ankle-length woven trousers, and medieval criss-crossed leg wrappings sometimes referred to as chausses. Read the rest of this entry »

Horst P. Horst. Horst Paul Albert Bohrmann

Horst Paul Albert Bohrmann (1906-1999) was one of the most creative and prolific fashion photographers of the twentieth century. (He took the name of Horst P. Horst during World War II and was known professionally simply as Horst.) From the beginning of his career in 1931 until 1992, when failing eyesight forced him to abandon his work, his photographs graced the pages of American, French, British, German, Spanish, and Italian editions of Vogue, Vanity Fair, House and Garden, and a host of photography magazines, books, and catalogs. Horst came to prominence in the 1930s, by which time the power unique to the medium of photography was dramatically apparent to promoters of fashion. He is appreciated in the twenty-first century not only for the spare elegance and refined glamour of his fashion work, which produced icons of the genre, but also for his myriad portraits, male and female nudes, flower studies, and pictures of homes and gardens. Read the rest of this entry »

Hoop skirt

HOOP SKIRT. See Crinoline.


The word “homespun” connotes both a rough fabric worn by country people and the human qualities, good or bad, associated with it. In English literature, “homespun” can mean boorish behavior or wholesome simplicity. In Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream, for example, Puck dismisses the comic bumpkins Bottom and Snout as “hempen homespun.” Writing a century later, John Dryden contrasted “harlot-hunting” foreigners with an “honest homespun countrey Clown” of English make. In the eighteenth century, political writers on both sides of the Atlantic adopted the personae of a wise but plainspoken countryman or -woman, signing themselves “Dorothy Distaff” or “Horatio Homespun.” In the nineteenth-century United States, poets, novelists, and preachers celebrated an idealized “age of homespun” that symbolized the virtues of self-sufficiency and egalitarian simplicity. Read the rest of this entry »

Hollywood style

In 1974, Diana Vreeland organized an exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, devoted to studio designs. The exhibition’s title, Romantic and Glamorous: Hollywood Style, sums up perfectly the way in which traditional “Hollywood style” is perceived. It is seen as synonymous with glamour and opulence. Vreeland emphasized this in the exhibition’s catalog: “Everything was larger than life. The diamonds were bigger, the furs were thicker and more luxurious … silks, satins, velvets and chiffons, miles and miles of ostrich feathers … everything was an exaggeration” (p. 5). Read the rest of this entry »

Historicism and historical revival

Prior to the rise of the bourgeoisie, historical revivals in dress were the preserve of the aristocratic classes, principally employed as costume either for masquerade and pageantry, portraiture or professional function (courtly and legal uniform), and always as a distinguishing mark of timelessness and status—of both power and beauty. Read the rest of this entry »

Hippie style

In the mid-1960s, the hippies—the rebels and dropouts of the Haight-Ashbury community of San Francisco—generated one of the most influential of history’s dress reform movements. Their style was so outrageous and anomalous that it alone could have made the hippie movement impossible to ignore. As did their lifestyles, their fashion built upon San Francisco and California’s tradition of iconoclasmi; important, too, was the precedent provided by the young ready-to-wear designers of London, whose international impact began in the late 1950s. Read the rest of this entry »

Hip-hop fashion

Hip-hop is both the voice of alienated, frustrated youth and a multibillion-dollar cultural industry packaged and marketed on a global scale. Hip-hop is also a multifaceted subculture that transcends many of the popular characterizations used to describe other music-led youth cultures. One of the important considerations about hip-hop is that since its conception in the early 1970s, hip-hop has arguably become more potent and efficient in galvanizing black social identity than the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Read the rest of this entry »

Hilfiger Tommy

The ubiquity of Tommy Hunger’s fashions, particularly among urban youth, is a testament to the marketing and image branding that has characterized contemporary American fashion. Hilfiger was born in 1952, one of nine children raised by a jeweler and nurse in upstate New York; he described his childhood in his 1997 stylebook, All American, as living in “Leave it to Beaver-land” (p. 2). In his senior year of high school Hilfiger and two friends opened People’s Place, a clothing shop in their hometown of Elmira that sold candles and bell-bottom jeans; Hilfiger enjoyed decorating the windows and designing in-store merchandise displays. People’s Place thrived for nearly eight years, with additional stores opening in other towns, until it went bankrupt in the late 1970s. Read the rest of this entry »


Equating the terms hijab and “veil” is a common error. “Veil” is an easy, familiar word used when referring to Arab women’s head, face, and body covers. Hijab is not the Arabic equivalent of veil—it is a complex and multilayered phenomenon. Read the rest of this entry »

High-tech fashion

High-tech fashion uses advances in science and technology to design and produce fashion products. Methods used in high-tech fashion borrow from technologies developed in the fields of chemistry, computer science, aerospace engineering, automotive engineering, architecture, industrial textiles, and competitive athletic wear. Fashion projects an image of rapid change and forward thinking—a good environment for use of the latest technologies in production methods and materials. As technology becomes more integrated with one’s everyday life, its influence on the fashion one wears continues to increase. Read the rest of this entry »

High heels

High-heeled shoes, perhaps more than any other item of clothing, are seen as the ultimate fashion symbol of being a woman. Little girls, who raid their mother’s closets for dressing-up props, gravitate toward them. A first pair of high heels was often a rite of passage into womanhood. Read the rest of this entry »

Heroin chic

At the U.S. Conference of Mayors on 21 May 1997, President Bill Clinton triggered a media furor on both sides of the Atlantic with his comments about the dangers of so-called heroin chic in contemporary fashion imagery. “You do not need to glamorize addiction to sell clothes,” he asserted. “The glorification of heroin is not creative, it’s destructive. It’s not beautiful, it’s ugly” (White House Briefing Room p.1). The photographs in question showed emaciated models, eyes half-closed, skin pale and clammy, heads twisted in apparent abandon against a backdrop of seedy, anonymous hotel rooms and dirty apartments. Clinton’s fears had been heightened by fashion photographer Davide Sorrenti’s death at twenty-one, from a drug overdose on 4 February 1997. The gap between image-makers’ and models’ real lives and constructed fashion photographs blurred. Since the 1970s fashion designers’ struggles with drug addiction, for example, Yves Saint Laurent and Roy Halston, had been related alongside discussions of their work and influences. In the 1990s media coverage merged actual drug abuse and fashion scenarios created to suggest decadent and nihilistic rejections of conventional notions of beauty. Clinton decried what he saw as fashion’s glam-orization of heroin use, and his words were reinforced by fashion journalists such as Amy Spindler of the New York Times, who felt that fashion insiders were irresponsible, that they ignored drug use by models and photographers, and that they made images that spoke of dark addictions in order to promote clothing and fashion ideals. Read the rest of this entry »